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Giant clouds of these primordial elements — mostly hydrogen , with some helium and lithium — later coalesced through gravity , forming early stars and galaxies, the descendants of which are visible today.
Besides these primordial building materials, astronomers observe the gravitational effects of an unknown dark matter surrounding galaxies.
Most of the gravitational potential in the universe seems to be in this form, and the Big Bang theory and various observations indicate that this gravitational potential is not made of baryonic matter , such as normal atoms.
Measurements of the redshifts of supernovae indicate that the expansion of the universe is accelerating , an observation attributed to dark energy 's existence.
For several decades, the scientific community was divided between supporters of the Big Bang and the rival steady-state model , but a wide range of empirical evidence has strongly favored the Big Bang, which is now universally accepted.
Edwin Hubble confirmed through analysis of galactic redshifts in that galaxies are indeed drifting apart; this is important observational evidence for an expanding universe.
In , the CMB was discovered, which was crucial evidence in favor of the hot Big Bang model,  since that theory predicted a uniform background radiation throughout the universe.
The Big Bang theory offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena, including the abundances of the light elements , the CMB , large-scale structure , and Hubble's law.
The universality of physical laws is one of the underlying principles of the theory of relativity. The cosmological principle states that on large scales the universe is homogeneous and isotropic.
These ideas were initially taken as postulates, but later efforts were made to test each of them. The large-scale universe appears isotropic as viewed from Earth.
If it is indeed isotropic, the cosmological principle can be derived from the simpler Copernican principle , which states that there is no preferred or special observer or vantage point.
The expansion of the Universe was inferred from early twentieth century astronomical observations and is an essential ingredient of the Big Bang theory.
Mathematically, general relativity describes spacetime by a metric , which determines the distances that separate nearby points.
The points, which can be galaxies, stars, or other objects, are specified using a coordinate chart or "grid" that is laid down over all spacetime.
This metric contains a scale factor , which describes how the size of the universe changes with time. This enables a convenient choice of a coordinate system to be made, called comoving coordinates.
In this coordinate system, the grid expands along with the universe, and objects that are moving only because of the expansion of the universe , remain at fixed points on the grid.
While their coordinate distance comoving distance remains constant, the physical distance between two such co-moving points expands proportionally with the scale factor of the universe.
The Big Bang is not an explosion of matter moving outward to fill an empty universe. Instead, space itself expands with time everywhere and increases the physical distances between comoving points.
In other words, the Big Bang is not an explosion in space , but rather an expansion of space. An important feature of the Big Bang spacetime is the presence of particle horizons.
Since the universe has a finite age, and light travels at a finite speed, there may be events in the past whose light has not yet had time to reach us.
This places a limit or a past horizon on the most distant objects that can be observed. Conversely, because space is expanding, and more distant objects are receding ever more quickly, light emitted by us today may never "catch up" to very distant objects.
This defines a future horizon , which limits the events in the future that we will be able to influence.
The presence of either type of horizon depends on the details of the FLRW model that describes our universe.
Our understanding of the universe back to very early times suggests that there is a past horizon, though in practice our view is also limited by the opacity of the universe at early times.
So our view cannot extend further backward in time, though the horizon recedes in space. If the expansion of the universe continues to accelerate, there is a future horizon as well.
Some processes in the early universe occurred too slowly, compared to the expansion rate of the universe, to reach approximate thermodynamic equilibrium.
Others were fast enough to reach thermalisation. The parameter usually used to find out whether a process in the very early universe has reached thermal equilibrium is the ratio between the rate of the process usually rate of collisions between particles and the Hubble parameter.
The larger the ratio, the more time particles had to thermalise before they were too far away from each other.
According to the Big Bang theory, the universe at the beginning was very hot and very compact, and since then it has been expanding and cooling down.
Extrapolation of the expansion of the universe backwards in time using general relativity yields an infinite density and temperature at a finite time in the past.
Models based on general relativity alone can not extrapolate toward the singularity — beyond the end of the so-called Planck epoch. This primordial singularity is itself sometimes called "the Big Bang",  but the term can also refer to a more generic early hot, dense phase  [notes 2] of the universe.
In either case, "the Big Bang" as an event is also colloquially referred to as the "birth" of our universe since it represents the point in history where the universe can be verified to have entered into a regime where the laws of physics as we understand them specifically general relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics work.
Based on measurements of the expansion using Type Ia supernovae and measurements of temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background, the time that has passed since that event — known as the " age of the universe " — is Despite being extremely dense at this time—far denser than is usually required to form a black hole —the universe did not re-collapse into a singularity.
This may be explained by considering that commonly-used calculations and limits for gravitational collapse are usually based upon objects of relatively constant size, such as stars, and do not apply to rapidly expanding space such as the Big Bang.
Likewise, since the early universe did not immediately collapse into a multitude of black holes, matter at that time must have been very evenly distributed with a negligible density gradient.
The earliest phases of the Big Bang are subject to much speculation, since astronomical data about them are not available. In the most common models the universe was filled homogeneously and isotropically with a very high energy density and huge temperatures and pressures , and was very rapidly expanding and cooling.
Microscopic quantum fluctuations that occurred because of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle were amplified into the seeds that would later form the large-scale structure of the universe.
Reheating occurred until the universe obtained the temperatures required for the production of a quark—gluon plasma as well as all other elementary particles.
This resulted in the predominance of matter over antimatter in the present universe. The universe continued to decrease in density and fall in temperature, hence the typical energy of each particle was decreasing.
The small excess of quarks over antiquarks led to a small excess of baryons over antibaryons. The temperature was now no longer high enough to create new proton—antiproton pairs similarly for neutrons—antineutrons , so a mass annihilation immediately followed, leaving just one in 10 10 of the original protons and neutrons, and none of their antiparticles.
A similar process happened at about 1 second for electrons and positrons. After these annihilations, the remaining protons, neutrons and electrons were no longer moving relativistically and the energy density of the universe was dominated by photons with a minor contribution from neutrinos.
A few minutes into the expansion, when the temperature was about a billion kelvin and the density of matter in the universe was comparable to the current density of Earth's atmosphere, neutrons combined with protons to form the universe's deuterium and helium nuclei in a process called Big Bang nucleosynthesis BBN.
As the universe cooled, the rest energy density of matter came to gravitationally dominate that of the photon radiation.
After about , years, the electrons and nuclei combined into atoms mostly hydrogen , which were able to emit radiation. This relic radiation, which continued through space largely unimpeded, is known as the cosmic microwave background.
Over a long period of time, the slightly denser regions of the uniformly distributed matter gravitationally attracted nearby matter and thus grew even denser, forming gas clouds, stars, galaxies, and the other astronomical structures observable today.
The four possible types of matter are known as cold dark matter , warm dark matter , hot dark matter , and baryonic matter. Independent lines of evidence from Type Ia supernovae and the CMB imply that the universe today is dominated by a mysterious form of energy known as dark energy , which apparently permeates all of space.
When the universe was very young, it was likely infused with dark energy, but with less space and everything closer together, gravity predominated, and it was slowly braking the expansion.
But eventually, after numerous billion years of expansion, the growing abundance of dark energy caused the expansion of the universe to slowly begin to accelerate.
Dark energy in its simplest formulation takes the form of the cosmological constant term in Einstein field equations of general relativity, but its composition and mechanism are unknown and, more generally, the details of its equation of state and relationship with the Standard Model of particle physics continue to be investigated both through observation and theoretically.
Understanding this earliest of eras in the history of the universe is currently one of the greatest unsolved problems in physics. English astronomer Fred Hoyle is credited with coining the term "Big Bang" during a talk for a March BBC Radio broadcast,  saying: "These theories were based on the hypothesis that all the matter in the universe was created in one big bang at a particular time in the remote past.
It is popularly reported that Hoyle, who favored an alternative " steady-state " cosmological model, intended this to be pejorative,  but Hoyle explicitly denied this and said it was just a striking image meant to highlight the difference between the two models.
The Big Bang theory developed from observations of the structure of the universe and from theoretical considerations.
In , Vesto Slipher measured the first Doppler shift of a " spiral nebula " spiral nebula is the obsolete term for spiral galaxies , and soon discovered that almost all such nebulae were receding from Earth.
He did not grasp the cosmological implications of this fact, and indeed at the time it was highly controversial whether or not these nebulae were "island universes" outside our Milky Way.
In , American astronomer Edwin Hubble 's measurement of the great distance to the nearest spiral nebulae showed that these systems were indeed other galaxies.
Starting that same year, Hubble painstakingly developed a series of distance indicators, the forerunner of the cosmic distance ladder , using the inch 2.
This allowed him to estimate distances to galaxies whose redshifts had already been measured, mostly by Slipher. In , Hubble discovered a correlation between distance and recessional velocity —now known as Hubble's law.
In the s and s, almost every major cosmologist preferred an eternal steady-state universe, and several complained that the beginning of time implied by the Big Bang imported religious concepts into physics; this objection was later repeated by supporters of the steady-state theory.
A beginning in time was "repugnant" to him. If the world has begun with a single quantum , the notions of space and time would altogether fail to have any meaning at the beginning; they would only begin to have a sensible meaning when the original quantum had been divided into a sufficient number of quanta.
If this suggestion is correct, the beginning of the world happened a little before the beginning of space and time. During the s, other ideas were proposed as non-standard cosmologies to explain Hubble's observations, including the Milne model ,  the oscillatory universe originally suggested by Friedmann, but advocated by Albert Einstein and Richard C.
Tolman  and Fritz Zwicky 's tired light hypothesis. After World War II , two distinct possibilities emerged.
One was Fred Hoyle's steady-state model, whereby new matter would be created as the universe seemed to expand.
In this model the universe is roughly the same at any point in time. Eventually, the observational evidence, most notably from radio source counts , began to favor Big Bang over steady state.
The discovery and confirmation of the CMB in secured the Big Bang as the best theory of the origin and evolution of the universe. Ellis published papers where they showed that mathematical singularities were an inevitable initial condition of relativistic models of the Big Bang.
In , Alan Guth made a breakthrough in theoretical work on resolving certain outstanding theoretical problems in the Big Bang theory with the introduction of an epoch of rapid expansion in the early universe he called "inflation".
This issue was later resolved when new computer simulations, which included the effects of mass loss due to stellar winds , indicated a much younger age for globular clusters.
Lawrence Krauss . The earliest and most direct observational evidence of the validity of the theory are the expansion of the universe according to Hubble's law as indicated by the redshifts of galaxies , discovery and measurement of the cosmic microwave background and the relative abundances of light elements produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis BBN.
More recent evidence includes observations of galaxy formation and evolution , and the distribution of large-scale cosmic structures ,  These are sometimes called the "four pillars" of the Big Bang theory.
Precise modern models of the Big Bang appeal to various exotic physical phenomena that have not been observed in terrestrial laboratory experiments or incorporated into the Standard Model of particle physics.
Of these features, dark matter is currently the subject of most active laboratory investigations. Dark energy is also an area of intense interest for scientists, but it is not clear whether direct detection of dark energy will be possible.
Viable, quantitative explanations for such phenomena are still being sought. These are currently unsolved problems in physics. Observations of distant galaxies and quasars show that these objects are redshifted: the light emitted from them has been shifted to longer wavelengths.
This can be seen by taking a frequency spectrum of an object and matching the spectroscopic pattern of emission or absorption lines corresponding to atoms of the chemical elements interacting with the light.
These redshifts are uniformly isotropic, distributed evenly among the observed objects in all directions. If the redshift is interpreted as a Doppler shift, the recessional velocity of the object can be calculated.
For some galaxies, it is possible to estimate distances via the cosmic distance ladder. Hubble's law has two possible explanations.
Either we are at the center of an explosion of galaxies—which is untenable under the assumption of the Copernican principle—or the universe is uniformly expanding everywhere.
However, the redshift is not a true Doppler shift, but rather the result of the expansion of the universe between the time the light was emitted and the time that it was detected.
That space is undergoing metric expansion is shown by direct observational evidence of the cosmological principle and the Copernican principle, which together with Hubble's law have no other explanation.
Astronomical redshifts are extremely isotropic and homogeneous ,  supporting the cosmological principle that the universe looks the same in all directions, along with much other evidence.
If the redshifts were the result of an explosion from a center distant from us, they would not be so similar in different directions.
Measurements of the effects of the cosmic microwave background radiation on the dynamics of distant astrophysical systems in proved the Copernican principle, that, on a cosmological scale, the Earth is not in a central position.
Uniform cooling of the CMB over billions of years is explainable only if the universe is experiencing a metric expansion, and excludes the possibility that we are near the unique center of an explosion.
In , Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson serendipitously discovered the cosmic background radiation, an omnidirectional signal in the microwave band.
Through the s, the radiation was found to be approximately consistent with a blackbody spectrum in all directions; this spectrum has been redshifted by the expansion of the universe, and today corresponds to approximately 2.
This tipped the balance of evidence in favor of the Big Bang model, and Penzias and Wilson were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.
The surface of last scattering corresponding to emission of the CMB occurs shortly after recombination , the epoch when neutral hydrogen becomes stable.
Prior to this, the universe comprised a hot dense photon-baryon plasma sea where photons were quickly scattered from free charged particles.
In , NASA launched COBE, which made two major advances: in , high-precision spectrum measurements showed that the CMB frequency spectrum is an almost perfect blackbody with no deviations at a level of 1 part in 10 4 , and measured a residual temperature of 2.
Mather and George Smoot were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their leadership in these results.
During the following decade, CMB anisotropies were further investigated by a large number of ground-based and balloon experiments. In —, several experiments, most notably BOOMERanG , found the shape of the universe to be spatially almost flat by measuring the typical angular size the size on the sky of the anisotropies.
In early , the first results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe were released, yielding what were at the time the most accurate values for some of the cosmological parameters.
The results disproved several specific cosmic inflation models, but are consistent with the inflation theory in general. Other ground and balloon based cosmic microwave background experiments are ongoing.
Using the Big Bang model, it is possible to calculate the concentration of helium-4 , helium-3 , deuterium, and lithium-7 in the universe as ratios to the amount of ordinary hydrogen.
This value can be calculated independently from the detailed structure of CMB fluctuations. The ratios predicted by mass, not by number are about 0.
The measured abundances all agree at least roughly with those predicted from a single value of the baryon-to-photon ratio. Detailed observations of the morphology and distribution of galaxies and quasars are in agreement with the current state of the Big Bang theory.
A combination of observations and theory suggest that the first quasars and galaxies formed about a billion years after the Big Bang, and since then, larger structures have been forming, such as galaxy clusters and superclusters.
Populations of stars have been aging and evolving, so that distant galaxies which are observed as they were in the early universe appear very different from nearby galaxies observed in a more recent state.
Moreover, galaxies that formed relatively recently, appear markedly different from galaxies formed at similar distances but shortly after the Big Bang.
These observations are strong arguments against the steady-state model. Observations of star formation, galaxy and quasar distributions and larger structures, agree well with Big Bang simulations of the formation of structure in the universe, and are helping to complete details of the theory.
In , astronomers found what they believe to be pristine clouds of primordial gas by analyzing absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars.
Before this discovery, all other astronomical objects have been observed to contain heavy elements that are formed in stars.
These two clouds of gas contain no elements heavier than hydrogen and deuterium. The age of the universe as estimated from the Hubble expansion and the CMB is now in good agreement with other estimates using the ages of the oldest stars, both as measured by applying the theory of stellar evolution to globular clusters and through radiometric dating of individual Population II stars.
The prediction that the CMB temperature was higher in the past has been experimentally supported by observations of very low temperature absorption lines in gas clouds at high redshift.
Observations have found this to be roughly true, but this effect depends on cluster properties that do change with cosmic time, making precise measurements difficult.
Future gravitational-wave observatories might be able to detect primordial gravitational waves , relics of the early universe, up to less than a second after the Big Bang.
As with any theory, a number of mysteries and problems have arisen as a result of the development of the Big Bang theory.